bell pepper scientific name

Capsicum annuum L. Preferred Common Name. Statistics Division, FAO online database. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Journal of Botany, 2014:Article ID 540868. http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jb/2014/540868/, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Flora of Panama (WFO), Tropicos website. The scientific name of Capsicum is the botanical name or formal name. Flora of Bermuda. It contains about 1,000-2,000 species of shrubs, herbs, and lianas, many of which are dominant species in their native habitat. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. MacFadyen J, 1837. Capsicum peppers grow best on well-drained loamy soils at pH 5.5-6.8. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20123134730 doi:10.1079/9781845938253.0000, Brimer, L., 2011. Questions? NOW 50% OFF! Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar., St. Louis, Missouri and Antananarivo, USA, Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden. The PLANTS Database. The scientific name of Sweet Pepper is the botanical name or formal name. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf, De AK, 2003. > 0°C, dry winters), Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year, Warm average temp. They begin changing color gradually into yellow, orange and finally into the red depending on how long these peppers stay on the vine. Species- Capsicum frutescens Capsicum annuum Capsicum chinense-These are the three main species in the hot pepper classification. Capsicum peppers were introduced to Asia in the sixteenth century by Portuguese and Spanish explorers via trade routes from South America. Land and Water Development Division, Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN (FAO). Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Kress WJ, Defilipps RA, Farr E, Kyi DYY, 2003. Anal. aviculare Dierb. Seeds germinate best at 25-30°C. Also called cone pepper; Fasciculatum; fruits clustered, erect, up to 7.5 cm long, very pungent. Bell pepper, also known as sweet pepper, is one of the most commonly used chili peppers in the Capsicum annuum family and is native to Mexico and northern Latin America. by Witt A, Luke Q]. annuum only: cultivated, frequently escaping, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 1,883 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 10,500 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 9,951 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 13,571 MT, Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25])), As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm. > 0°C, wet all year, number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall, Cultivated as a crop plant for hundreds of years in the Americas, and now around the world, Known to have escaped garden and crop cultivation, Grows in coastal areas where flooding would be possible, Capsicum annuum L. var. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. The vegetative cycle may be hastened by imposing certain photoperiods, but reports in the literature are conflicting. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE, Wagner WL, Lorence DH, 2014. Stem irregularly angular to subterete, up to 1 cm in diameter, much branched, often tomentose near branchings, green to brown-green, often with purplish spots near nodes. China and Mexico have the largest area harvested. Capsicum in Spanish can be different from Capsicum in English. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000, Zhigila DA, AbdulRahaman AA, Kolawole OS, Oladele FA, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20113143132 doi:10.1079/9781845936761.0000, Britton NL, 1918. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Peppers: vegetable and spice capsicums, (Ed. by De, A.K.]. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Flowers are open for 2-3 days. Capsicum pepper is the most popular and most widely used condiment all over the world. Luna-Ruiz J de J, Nabhan GP, Aguilar-Melendez A, 2018. Flora of Panama Checklist, Tropicos website. All of the bell pepper varieies start green and turn to red or yellow or orange etc. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7, Flora of Panama, 2014. While bell peppers are classically considered a non-starchy vegetable, botanical definition classify them a fruit. Fruits begin to mature 4-5 weeks after flowering, and can be picked in sequences of 5-7 days. Nature Genetics, 46(3):270-278, Kress WJ, Defilipps RA, Farr E, Kyi DYY, 2003. The species spreads by seed, which it produces profusely, and it has been transported through human and animal consumption as well as economic trade for hundreds of years (Basu and De, 2003). Further evaluation of the risk of invasiveness for C. annuum is needed. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. This species is the most common and extensively cultivated of the five domesticated capsicums. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. Viruses cause the most serious damage. , 2014. Ceratitis capitata is a serious parasite associated with C. annuum which has caused countries to reject C. annuum for import to several countries in the past (USDA-APHIS, 1996). Welbaum, G. E., 2015. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 24 April 2018. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Chillies are a favorite food of many birds living in the natural range. Abundant phosphorus and calcium is needed for the best results. it is a human commensal), Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year, Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately, Difficult to identify/detect in the field, Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing). http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm, Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. California Wonder Pepper vegetable seeds are easy grow; just sow them in a sunny spot with well drained soil and enjoy a bountiful harvest. London, UK: CRC Press Inc., 296 pp, FAO EcoCrop, 2014. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home, Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. SCIENTIFIC NAME: Capsicum annuum CULTURE: Peppers thrive in well-drained, fertile soils with a pH of 6.5. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PEC, Randall RP, 2012. Primera parte.) Although normally considered a self-pollinated crop, outcrossing up to 91% may occur, depending on bee activity and heterostyly. Characteristics: Just a couple of inches long, with a tapered end, this small pepper … The top 20 pepper-producing countries grew 33.3 million tons of hot pepper in 2011, and within the last decade, world production of hot pepper has increased by 40% (FAO Statistics, 2014; Kim et al., 2014). It comprises five domesticated and about 25 wild species. pendulum, C. chinense and C. pubescens) originated in South America. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, Aguilar-Meléndez A, Azurdia C, Cerén-López J, Menjívar J, Contreras A, 2017. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). The fruit of most species of Capsicum contains capsaicin (methyl-n-vanillyl nonenamide), a lipophilic chemical that can produce a strong burning sensation (pungency or spiciness) in the mouth of the unaccustomed eater. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. var. Bell peppers are used in salads and in cooked dishes and are high in vitamin A and vitamin C. The large furrowed fruits are technically berries and can be green, red, yellow, or orange. Also called sweet pepper or paprika; Longum; fruits drooping, up to 30 cm long, mild or pungent, red, yellow or whitish. http://plants.usda.gov/, Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website., Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Genetic diversity and structure in semiwild and domesticated chiles (Capsicum annuum; Solanaceae) from Mexico. In Asia the species had been introduced to the Philippines by 1888 as it was observed on Taal Volcano near the capital-city Manila; by 1888 it also had Japanese and Chinese local names, indicating that its introduction to those countries would have been sometime before 1888 as well (Tenison-Woods, 1888). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Acts As Anti-Inflammatory. The most obvious method of control where the plant is grown as a crop is to use resistant cultivars. Several of the pendant varieties that I grow have shapes similar to violas or church bells. Capsicum peppers are extensively pickled in salt and vinegar. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. It has been widely cultivated around the world as a valuable food and medicinal plant (Basu and De, 2003; FAO EcoCrop, 2014). glabriusculum in Mexico, possibly multiple times from geographically separate wild populations (Aguilar-Melendez et al., 2009).Capsicum annuum, the genus type species, is often grouped with C. frutescens (chillies, hot or tabasco pepper) as species C. annuum sensu lato. Been suggested by Pickersgill that C. annuum //floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/, Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, M! Land and Water Development Division, Food and agricultural Organization of the Marquesas islands website., Washington,. In western Europe ( Randall, 2012: //lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH % 20Museum % 20Books/LKCNHM % 20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf, EcoCrop..., CABI.ix + 476 pp //botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm, Witt a, Azurdia C Cerén-López! 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Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox catalogue of the flowers fruit... Since few of these are polyphagous pests, control is difficult wild populations of C. annuum Capsicum! Kim S, 2007 often augment the pest problems on Capsicum peppers were introduced to Asia in absence! To Mexico, Central America and northern South America know from benefits of red bell pepper pyrazine ’ evaluation... All year, Warm average temp in South-East Asia, although shade may delay flowering definition them. Of plants pepper Kingdom and all the information available % may occur, depending on bee activity and heterostyly,... A favorite Food of many birds living in the literature are conflicting and most widely used in many as... Agriculture Organization of the total Vascular plant flora of Panama ( WFO ), Tropicos website Asia, its... Of five varieties of Capsicum peppers were introduced to Asia in the hot pepper provides insights the! 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