However, loyalist slave owners who immigrated to Canada at the same time were allowed to bring their slaves with them. Provincial health insurance is often denied as such insurance relies on a valid work permit.48 There have also been reported cases of female migrant workers hiding their pregnancy for fear of losing their employment status and being deported.49, Although care workers on the LCP were granted the right to live outside their employer’s home as part of the changes to the LCP program in 2014, workers under the program may still be vulnerable to exploitation. Post-abolition, it was the slave owners, not the slaves, who were awarded compensation — for "lost property." Slavery is Canada's best-kept secret Canada has burnished its reputation as the terminal station of the Underground Railroad, a safe haven for runaway slaves. It is the first international trial against a corporation on grounds of modern slavery within its supply chains. Introduce a National Referral Mechanism (NRM) to ensure that all victims of modern slavery are centrally registered by authorities and data is reported annually. Lovejoy also discounts comparisons with slavery in the Americas, and considers indigenous African slavery had only a limited impact on the development of the Atlantic trade. "Policing arose out of slave patrols," says Charmaine Nelson, professor of art history at McGill University. ‘Many Chains to Break: The Multi-dimensional Concept of Slave Labour in Brazil’. Public Works and Government Services Canada 2017. This legislation also made Canada free land for enslaved American Blacks. It said these systems "lie at the core" of persistent, structural racism, which took hold during the 17th-19th centuries. The plaintiffs allege that they were conscripted by the Eritrean government under their ‘National Service Program’ and forced to build the mine under conditions of modern slavery.86 Therefore, the plaintiffs claim that Nevsun Resources was complicit in and profited from crimes of modern slavery by using forced labour to build the Bisha Mine in Eritrea. This is particularly due to one of the previous requirements that foreign caregivers had to live in the home of their employers. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons 2017. As records show, slavery in what is now known as Canada began long before European traders and colonists arrived. [15, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2015/30/contents/enacted, https://www.modernslaveryregistry.org/explore?countries%5B%5D=1495&company_name=&legislation_UK+Modern+Slavery+Act=yes, http://claihr.ca/2017/04/06/araya-v-nevsun-resources-ltd-an-overview/, https://s3-ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/walkfreefoundation.org-assets/content/uploads/2018/03/29152400/02_The-Nevsun-Effect-1801229-Final-.pdf. Pagtakhan, R 2017, ‘Pathway to Canadian citizenship needed for all temporary foreign workers: Pagtakhan’. Listen to Part 1 of this series: Canada's slavery secret: The whitewashing of 200 years of enslavement. In addition to losing their place of living, caregivers who would decide to move out of their employer’s home are required to obtain a new Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA) and work permit,50 therefore making it difficult to change employers in practice.51 Additionally, the changes also resulted in live-out caregivers no longer being considered part of the LCP which meant they were no longer eligible to apply for permanent residence under the LCP.52, The Canadian government has criminalised human trafficking under section 279.01 and human trafficking of persons under the age of 18 years under section 279.011 of the criminal code. The Commonwealth Act establishes a national Modern Slavery Reporting Requirement that seeks to uncover the impact of large organisations on modern slavery both in Australia and abroad. The second highest value import which is suspected to be produced under conditions of modern slavery is apparel (US$4.7 billion). Exchange rates as at 17 April 2018: US$1=Can$1.25737. The Act was one of the most controversial elements of the 1850 compromise and heightened Northern fears of a "slave power conspiracy. Some historians trace this pattern back to slavery and segregation. Audience Relations, CBC P.O. At the present time, Canada lags behind many of its most important trading partners in ensuring that businesses are addressing modern slavery in their operations and supply chains. Although the dominant mode of slavery for the final 40 years of slavery in Canada was African (as American settlers brought their African slaves with them into the present-day Maritimes, Ontario and Quebecafter 1783), Indigenous slaves made up two-thirds of the slaves in Canada over the course of about 150 years. "How do you think they could catch fugitives, if not to have networks of people who were willing to put their necks on the line to catch people for a reward?". The results of a survey of 33 Filipino live-in care workers between 2012 and 2014 found evidence of withholding immigration documents and threat of deportation (reported by six workers), physical violence (five workers), accusations (18), insults (15), psychological, moral and sexual harassment (13), and different types of threats (15), such as threat of being reported to the immigration authorities. Pseudonyms will no longer be permitted. Of those affected, 35 percent were under the age of 18, 31 percent were aged 19 to 24, and 25 percent were aged 25 to 34, with the remaining nine percent aged 35 years and older. 77. The Global Slavery Index estimates that on any given day in 2016 there were 17,000 people living in conditions of modern slavery in Canada, a prevalence of 0.5 victims for every thousand people in the country. It also notes that the NAP has made a limited contribution to the investigation and prosecution of trafficking crimes due to a range of external factors, such as jurisdictional constraint and the difficulty of collecting sufficient evidence for the prosecution, which limits the ability of federal law enforcement agencies to conduct such investigations.61 A new NAP had not yet been published at the time of writing. Afua Cooper is James Robinson Johnston Chair in Black Canadian Studies at Dalhousie University. Unlike our American cousins, Canada did not itself end its slavery ― in fact, in 1777 slaves began fleeing Canada for Vermont, which had just abolished slavery. "Black people are being surveilled and over-policed and carded at a rate that is disproportionate to other people, especially white citizens. First, a quick reminder of the Act itself and the scale of the issue it seeks to address. But what effect has it had so far? However, slavery continued in other areas of the British Empire including the territories run by the East India Company, Ceylon (modern day Sri Lanka) and St Helena. A number of measures cast this inequality into sharp relief. As these fees did not include the worker’s travel and setup fees, many of the workers reported having to borrow large sums from banks or family members in the Philippines to be able to migrate to Canada.12 Due to persistent allegations of exploitation of live-in caregivers, the program was overhauled in 2014, resulting in the removal of the live-in requirement, in addition to the announcement that the government would no longer accept applications that were received on or after 30 November 2014.13 However, allegations of exploitation continue among those already employed through the LCP.14, Trafficking within Canada for the purpose of sexual exploitation, primarily involving Canadian citizens as victims, is reported to be the most common form of modern slavery detected by authorities.15 In fact, 93 percent of identified sex trafficking victims are Canadian citizens, not foreign citizens.16 It must be emphasised that these figures do not necessarily reflect the small numbers of foreign nationals being subject to exploitation in Canada, but rather, they are a reflection of the numerous reasons foreign victims do not report to authorities, such as being tied to their employer through their visa while trying to get permanent residence, or fear of deportation.17 This is in addition to the many reasons victims in general do not come forward, such as threats or a dependent relationship with their exploiters, among others. This documentary chronicles slavery as it occurred "in Canada" prior to Confederation and refers to colonial Canada. ‘Medical repatriation of migrant farm workers in Ontario: a descriptive analysis’. It existed both under the French and the English. To encourage thoughtful and respectful conversations, first and last names will appear with each submission to CBC/Radio-Canada's online communities (except in children and youth-oriented communities). Canada imports nearly US$ 1.6 billion worth of gold annually from Peru. PSPC also announced it will meet with suppliers, industry associations and other stakeholders in the apparel industry to discuss current practices on ethical manufacturing and sourcing throughout their supply chains.70 The government of Canada, through PSPC, reportedly has active contracts for the procurement of apparel totalling more than Can$640 million (US$509 million71).72, In 2016, the Walk Free Foundation and WikiRate73 partnered to develop a UK Modern Slavery Act Research project that would contribute to transparency on corporate action on modern slavery by enabling members of the public to view and assess modern slavery statements produced under Section 54 of the UK Modern Slavery Act.74 Section 54 requires businesses either headquartered or conducting business in the UK and with an annual turnover of over GBP36 million per annum to release an annual statement on the actions they are taking to respond to modern slavery.75 There are an estimated 12,000 to 17,000 statements that will be produced under this reporting requirement, many of which are housed on the Business and Human Rights Resource Centre (BHRRC) Modern Slavery Registry.76. Follow through with reviewing government procurement guidelines and policies to introduce measures prohibiting that government agencies use businesses suspected of using forced labour or purchasing products that were made using forced labour. The Human Trafficking National Coordination Centre (HTNCC) reported that as of November 2017, they had identified 455 cases of human trafficking since 2005. The first of these mile… Photo credit: Jim Rankin/Toronto Star via Getty Images, Imports of products at risk of modern slavery to Canada. Former Canadian parliamentary poet laureate George Elliott Clarke was commissioned by IDEAS to write two poems for this series. Marwaha, S 2017, ‘Anyone can be a victim’: Canadian high school girls being lured into sex trade. To date, over 400 statements have been assessed by university students at Columbia University, ESCP Europe Business School, Johns Hopkins University, University of Nottingham, and the University of Western Australia. Public Services and Procurement Canada 2014. 7 On Prince Edward Island, the complete abolition of slavery was pronounced by the legislature on 1825, nine years before the Imperial abolition of 1834. Investigations of the Toronto and Halifax police forces found that Black Canadians are stopped and searched three times more often than white Canadians. It received Royal Assent on August 28, 1833, and took effect on August 1, 1834. "If we are looking at one of the legacies of slavery in Canada, it made white people white and Black people Black. Appoint an Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner who will be responsible for overseeing a coordinated response to modern slavery across all sectors. So far, 118 cases have resulted in human trafficking specific and/or related convictions, but 296 cases remain before the court (involving about 506 accused perpetrators and 420 victims).1 These figures, of course, do not consider the unknown number of victims that are not reported. Slavery had a direct impact on the classism system that is still very apparent in the society today. Orkin, A M, Lay, M, McLaughlin, J, Schwandt, M & Cole, D 2014. Nelson notes, “I never had a Canadian student enter my class on day one knowing that slavery transpired in Canada.” While the majority of Canadians, including Nelson’s students, can attest to a general knowledge of the Underground Railroad—a movement that accounts for approximately 30 years of Canadian history—most are ignorant of a long history of slavery in their country. Thirty-three years ago, historian James Walker rightfully pointed out in his A History of Blacks in Canada: a Study Guide for Teachers and Students that “[w]e cannot understand early pioneer history unless we acknowledge that slavery existed”. In 2014, three Eritrean workers filed a lawsuit against the mining company in the Supreme Court of Canada. Grant, M 2016, ‘Amanda McGee sentenced to 8 years for human trafficking, sexual assault’. See https://wikirate.org/Bank_of_Montreal?filter%5Bmetric_value%5D=all&filter%5Bproject%5D=UK+Modern+Slavery+Act+Research for more details. There was indigenous slavery and black slavery, but it was not the same sort of slavery you would see in the south with cotton fields or sugar cane fields. McGrath, S 2012. Department of Immigration and Citizenship 2018, Lindsay, B 2017, ‘Foreign workers allege ‘life savings’ paid for Mac’s jobs that didn’t exist’. Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada, 2016. Indeed, while shareholder primacy has long been the legal bedrock of corporate governance in the US, two recent well-publicized developments suggest that boards are beginning to adopt a broader perspective in the exercise of their fiduciary duties. Ensure there is dedicated and adequate funding for victim assistance available for all provinces and territories. Abolish the ‘employer-specific work permit’ of the Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP) immediately. The data is taken from the BACI 2015 dataset (available from: http://www.cepii.fr/cepii/en/bdd_modele/presentation.asp?id=1). While Canada does not currently have federal legislation that requires large businesses to publicly report on steps taken to eliminate modern slavery within their business and supply chains, there is a growing impetus for such legislation in Canada.82 Canada also has an ongoing parliamentary inquiry on child labour and modern slavery that has discussed the question of supply chain transparency, among other issues.83, In a major step forward, the Canadian government announced on 17 January 2018 that it will create an independent Canadian Ombudsman for Responsible Enterprise (CORE). See https://wikirate.org/Estee_Lauder_Cosmetics_Limited?filter%5Bmetric_value%5D=all&filter%5Bproject%5D=UK+Modern+Slavery+Act+Research for more details. From racial slurs to microaggressions, racism remains entrenched in Canadian society, and its root causes may reach further back than we think. The Global Slavery Index (GSI) is a study of modern slavery published by the Australian-based, Walk Free initiative — a human rights organisation that works towards ending slavery around the globe. By making corporate responsibility data accessible, comparable and free for all, the organisation aims to provide society with the tools it needs to encourage companies to respond to social and environmental challenges. Techniques used by traffickers include building dependence by buying gifts and posing as boyfriends.32 Younger male mem… Historian Afua Cooper talks about what it's like to be black in Canada today and always under surveillance. The largest sectors represented are the banking sector (5) and software and services (4), followed by consumer durables and apparel (2). Additionally, section 279.02 criminalises receiving material benefits for the purpose of committing or facilitating trafficking and section 279.03 makes it a criminal offence to withhold or destroy a person’s identity documents for the purpose of trafficking.53 Forced labour and modern slavery are not criminalised in Canada’s penal code as distinct offences. Closed Captioning and Described Video is available for many CBC shows offered on CBC Gem. Comments on this story are moderated according to our Submission Guidelines. "What slavery did in Canada was it made [the concept of] race," she says. The Global Slavery Index. While there were no cotton fields or sugar plantations in Canada, the treatment of slaves was no better than elsewhere. An Economy Built on Slavery. In November 2017, PSPC also began seeking input from apparel suppliers to develop guidelines for the ethical procurement of apparel.69 As part of the request, suppliers selling apparel to the federal government will have to self-certify that their direct Canadian and foreign suppliers comply with local laws and international labour rights and human rights standards, such as forced labour and access to fair wages and safe working conditions. For the first time, the topic of enslavement has been included in the 2013 revised Ontario Social Studies, History, and Geography curriculum. Children in care are at increased risk of being targeted by traffickers due to prior neglect and limited oversight in the child welfare system, which may also result in children running away from care.36 Indigenous women and girls are particularly vulnerable due to a range of factors, including family violence, childhood abuse, poverty, homelessness, lack of education, and substance addictions, combined with the remote living conditions of many Indigenous communities.37 The impact of colonisation and intergenerational trauma, such as racial discrimination, oppression, and sexual violence, also plays a role in the vulnerability of Indigenous women and girls.38, In the TFWP, migrants with valid work permits under the ‘low-skilled’ streams are most vulnerable to conditions amounting to forced labour, including those under the low-wage and the primary agricultural streams.39 A lack of monitoring and enforcement under the TFWP has also made it easier for illegal practices to take place, such as charging migrants excessive recruitment fees that result in substantial debt and indentured labour.40 These workers are vulnerable to exploitation and trafficking as a result of several conditions of the TFWP, including barriers to attaining permanent status, and employer-specific work permits that tie immigration status to a single employer, causing migrant workers to risk deportation if they leave their job.41 Migrant workers may be threatened with deportation, forced to live in sub-standard conditions, or forced to work in dangerous conditions without receiving any workplace health and safety information or training.42, Migrant farm workers entering Canada through the SAWP are particularly vulnerable to exploitation as they are dependent on their employers for accommodation, food, and employment, and often work and live in isolated rural areas.43 It is also reported that temporary foreign workers often face language barriers that means they may sign work contracts they do not understand and are charged illegal recruitment fees in their home countries, leaving them under pressure of paying off significant debt.44 Every year thousands of seasonal workers from Jamaica, Mexico, and other Caribbean countries come to work in rural Canadian communities under the SAWP and the TFWP.45 Their precarious visa status renders migrant workers vulnerable to abuse and mistreatment.46 Migrant workers who become ill or injured in Canada may have their work permit confiscated due to their inability to work and may consequently be sent home without access to adequate health care.47 SAWP workers who become injured at work face repatriation and denial of medical treatment. The law took effect on 1st August 1834 and put into practice a transitional phase which included reassigning roles of slaves as “apprentices” which was later brought to an end in 1840. The statements analysed by the Modern Slavery Act Project were the most recently available statements at the time the research was conducted – in most cases, this would be the 2016 statement. However, while both histories are significant, in Canada, the story of Indigenous enslaveme… What's changed? A 2017 report by the United Nations Human Rights Working Group called on Canada to recognize the lasting damage done by slavery and segregation. In Nova Scotia alone in recent years, there has been a cross-burning on the lawn of a mixed race couple, racist graffiti on the campaign signs of minority candidates in provincial elections and a noose tied to a Black teacher's classroom door. The most common reason for being sent back to their countries of origin were medical or surgical reasons (41.3 percent) or external injuries, defined as trauma and including poisoning (25.5 percent). "The impact of Dr. Nelson's work to uncover, preserve, and share the difficult history of Transatlantic slavery will start here in Halifax — a city that continues to confront systemic racism built on generations of discrimination — and it will ripple across the country and around the world," Andy Fillmore, the Liberal MP for Halifax, said in a statement when the project was first announced. Some businesses have subsequently updated and improved their statements, and the updated statement will be included in the next iteration of the research. Building a commercial enterprise out of the wilderness required labor and lots of it. Please note that CBC does not endorse the opinions expressed in comments. "11, Migrant workers who previously entered Canada under the Live-in Caregiver Program (LCP) are vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. slavery; and • The differential impact of trafficking and slavery on different groups demarcated by (but not limited to) age, gender, ethnicity, national origins, religion, sexual orientation or practice. Migrant workers from Jamaica prepare to sort beets. Canadian governments have issued apologies and compensation to LGBTQ communities, victims of Japanese internment and families affected by the Chinese head tax. Twenty statements have been released to date by Canadian companies. The Standing Committee on Human Resources, Skills and Social Development (HUMA) recommended in its 2016 review of the TFWP that the government abolish the ‘employer-specific work permit’ that ties workers to a specific employer and introduce pathways to permanent residency for all temporary foreign workers.62 Though the government announced some reforms to the TFWP as part of the 2017 federal budget, it rejected the recommendation of ending work permits that are tied to employers, thus rendering temporary migrant workers at risk of exploitation.63 There are also still significant barriers for temporary foreign workers to obtain permanent residence at this stage.64, In 2016, Ontario introduced its first Director of the newly established Provincial Anti-Human Trafficking Coordination Office who will be responsible for coordinating the implementation of Ontario’s Strategy to End Human Trafficking, working across ministries and in collaboration with the law enforcement, justice, social services, health, education, and child welfare sectors.65. A statement by IBI group81 is not signed and includes details on a code of conduct. Box 500 Station A Toronto, ON Canada, M5W 1E6. In Part 2 of his series on slavery in colonial Canada, Kyle G. Brown explores the long-lasting ramifications of one of humanity’s most iniquitous institutions. ’16-year-old boy charged with sex trafficking of Edmonton girl’ 2018. ** This episode was produced by Mary Lynk. Slavery's long shadow: The impact of 200 years enslavement in Canada. The Abolition Act in Upper Canada and court decisions in Nova Scotia in the 1790s contributed greatly to a decline of African enslavement in Canada, and made Canada a safe haven for those seeking freedom and an important base for the abolitionist movement. Six further claims have been filed against Nevsun on behalf of 59 additional plaintiffs on the same basis. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada 2016. It has been noted that this is also due to a lack of knowledge and awareness surrounding labour trafficking in Canada. This gesture, they say, would pave the way for the kind of reconciliation that has begun with First Nations. Business and Human Rights Resource Centre 2018. **This episode originally aired Feb. 25, 2018. These findings indicate that the majority of identified forced marriage victims are of a very young age.23 The report also revealed that most victims were born overseas, coming from over 30 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America, while 22 victims were Canadian citizens. The CORE will be mandated to investigate allegations of human rights abuses linked to Canadian corporate activity abroad and will have the power to independently investigate, report, recommend, and remediate, as well as to monitor implementation of the remedies it imposes. French settlers and white Loyalists fleeing the American Revolution received plum political posts and large land grants, and their wealth and influence was passed down from generation to generation. The remaining 22 cases were international trafficking cases where victims were trafficked across international borders, predominantly for the purpose of forced labour. Migrant Workers Alliance for Change & Coalition for Migrant Workers 2017. For much of the 1600s, the American colonies operated as … Draft and adopt a new National Action Plan (NAP) immediately, with an adequate budget attached to it, taking into account the learnings from the evaluation of the previous NAP. The Code, used by Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC), the government of Canada’s central purchasing agency, is being updated to align with the government’s social and sustainable procurement policy objectives. Yes. Sugarcane is one of the largest agricultural commodities in the world.28 Canada receives 63 percent of its overall sugarcane imports from Brazil (US$ 243.3 million) whose sugarcane industry is considered at risk of using modern slavery.29 Brazil was also the top producer of sugar from sugarcane in 2015 and dominates world trade, accounting for 40 percent of global exports of sugar.30, According to data on identified cases, modern slavery takes place largely for the purpose of forced sexual exploitation in Canada; women represent the majority of identified victims.31 The majority of sex trafficking victims are reportedly Canadian-born teenage girls, some as young as 13, who are recruited in various ways, including at school, through social media, and at shopping malls. Marwaha, S 2017, ‘’Anyone can be a victim’: Canadian high school girls being lured into sex trade’. By submitting a comment, you accept that CBC has the right to reproduce and publish that comment in whole or in part, in any manner CBC chooses. Introduce legislation that requires large businesses to report on steps taken to eliminate modern slavery within their business and supply chains. In addition, since the abolition of the LCP, migrants looking to work as caregivers in Canada can still do so by applying for a regular work permit.4, Workers employed under these streams may work in restaurants, hotels or other hospitality services, agriculture, food preparation, construction, manufacturing, or domestic work.5 Migrant workers, particularly those in low-skilled and caregiving positions, reportedly experience a wide range of abuse including verbal, physical, and sexual abuse. To Part 1 of this series: Canada 's slavery secret: the impact of 200 enslavement. Assault ’ Jim Rankin/Toronto Star via Getty Images, imports of products at of... 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